Monday, June 27, 2016

Commuting in and out of the city



"On the average weekday, San Francisco gains about 160,000 more bodies in the form of workers who commute in from various Bay Area counties, and counties even further to our north, south, and east. We learned that figure earlier this year via the American Community Survey, and it amounts to the difference in the number of people who commute in for work versus those who live here and commute outside of the city, like down the Peninsula, for work. We actually gain a total of 265,000 people each weekday, but lose 103,000 who reverse-commute out to the 'burbs. (The figure is based on data collected between 2006 and 2010, and given how much SF has changed economically in the last six years, and all of the awful traffic we now have, the daytime population has likely followed suit)..."

"Below, we have the map depicting reverse commuters who live in SF and commute outside the city 10 to 100 miles every day..."



Hillary and Elizabeth Warren in Ohio

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"The fining of black America"


...Using the U.S. Census’s Survey of Local and State Finances, we investigated the proportion of revenues that cities typically receive from fines, as well as the characteristics of cities that rely on fines the most. What are these cities like? Are they rich or poor? In certain parts of the country? Heavily Black or White?

We found one demographic that was most characteristic of cities that levy large amounts of fines on their citizens: a large African American population. Among the fifty cities with the highest proportion of revenues from fines, the median size of the African American population—on a percentage basis—is more than five times greater than the national median.

Surprisingly, we found that income had very little connection to cities’ reliance on fines as a revenue source. Municipalities that are overwhelming White and non-Hispanic do not exhibit as much excessive fining, even if they are poor.

Our analysis indicates that the use of fines as a source of revenue is not a socioeconomic problem, but a racial one. The cities most likely to exploit residents for fine revenue are those with the most African Americans...